Perhaps the most iconic monuments of Ancient Egypt, found at the edges of the Western Desert in the city of Giza which abuts Capital City, Cairo, the Giza Pyramids with their stone guard, the Great Sphinx.
The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only remaining Wonder of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World, but the Giza Complex does not only include the 3 main Pyramids and their associated Mortuary Complexes, but also Nobles’ Tombs, Shafts, several cemeteries and a workers’ village.
Giza, along with Saqqara, Abusir and Dahshur, makes up the Necropolis for the Pharaohs, their Royal Families and the Nobles, who used Memphis as their Capital City and where they tended to be buried.
The Pyramids were constructed as a small part of the Mortuary Complex for the Pharaohs of the 4th Dynasty and were the main Royal Tombs of this period. The Pyramid itself housed the deceased’s Pharaohs body and a collection of items that the Pharaoh would need in the Afterlife. In order for Pharaoh to move on to his Afterlife then his Ka or soul would exit the Pyramid using the items left inside for him so he could continue his work on behalf of the Egyptian people as a Deity and among the Gods and Goddesses.
- Old Kingdom Period
- First Intermediate Period
- Middle Kingdom Period
- New Kingdom Period
- New Kingdom Period 2
- 1798-1801: Napoleon’s Expedition
- 1880-1920s: Sir Flinders Petrie
- Erection of Workers Villages
- Construction of Pharaoh Khufu’s and Pharaoh Khafre’s Mortuary Complexes
- Building of The Great Sphinx
- Construction of Pharaoh Menkaure’s Mortuary Complex
- Building of the Tomb of Queen Khentkaus
- Cemeteries of Nobles and High Officials were built throughout this period
7th to 11th Dynasties
The Necropolis was abandoned by Royalty
11th to 14th Dynasties
Giza was pillaged for its treasurers; the Pyramids, Tombs and Temples were all broken in to and broken down for their stonework
The Pharaohs of this Period stopped the looting and worked on repairing the Necropolis’ structures. Prince Khaemwaset, son of Pharaoh Ramses II and High Priest of Ptah at Memphis, worked the hardest on this project and as such he is remembered as the person who brought the Plateau back to its prime.
- Pharaoh Thutmose I erected a Chapel made out of mudbrick near the Great Sphinx
- Temple dedicated to Hauron-Haremakhet was constructed by Pharaoh Amenhotep II
- Crown Prince Thutmose IV receives his Dream Prophecy – click here for further details
- Pharaoh Thutmose IV erects his Dream Stela in a Chapel in front of the Great Sphinx
- A structure is built which is now called the King’s Rest House, erected on the orders of Pharaoh Tutankhamun
- Pharaoh Seti I added to the Temple of Hauron-Haremakhet
- Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s Rest House was supplanted by Pharaoh Ramses II’s built a Stela in the Chapel before the Great Sphinx
- During the Dynasty the Temple of Isis, known as Mistress of the Pyramids, was reconstructed
- A Stela was constructed within the 26th Dynasty which makes a mention of Pharaoh Khufu and his wife, Queen Henutsen
Next large activity at Giza, aside from looting, was when Napoleon arrived on his Campaign which brought with them engineers, artists and scientists which advertised Giza’s wonder to the World
Brought the Great Pyramid to the World’s attention