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Lower Egypt : Upper Egypt

What is Ancient Egypt?

What: Lower Egypt is the North of Egypt today & Upper Egypt is the South of Egypt today

When: From before records began to approximately the 1st Dynasty of the Pharaohs commenced under Pharaoh Narmer

Where: Dividing line can be drawn in after the Dashur area

Why: The 2 sections were named by the flow of the River Nile

Lower Egypt

In ancient Egyptian, Lower Egypt was literally known as “North” and was made up primarily of the Nile Delta

Memphis was the traditional Capital City of Lower Egypt, although there were others, and Wadjet, the Cobra Goddess, was its patron

Lower Egypt’s symbols were the Bee and the Papyrus

Click here for more details about the Capital Cities of Ancient Egypt

Upper Egypt

Upper Egypt in ancient Egyptian was known as “Land of Reeds” and was made up of the long narrow strip either side of the River Nile

Under the Pharaohs the Administrative City, and often the Capital City, was Waset, now referred to as Thebes, but today is known as Luxor, home to they Valley of the Kings and Queens. Click here for more details about The Valleys

Upper Egypt’s symbols were the Flowering Lotus and the Sedge

The Crowns

Lower Egypt: represented by the Red Crown named Deshret

Upper Egypt: represented by the White Crown named Hedjet

Both Crowns together were called the Pschent, although the Egyptians usually called it Sekhemty or “the 2 Powerful Ones” and this represented the Pharaoh’s power over the unified Egypt

The 2 patron animals were the Wadjet and the Nekhbet – attached to the front of the Pschent and referred to as the Two Ladies


The combining of the two Crowns is associated with the 1st First Dynasty Pharaoh Menes, sometimes described with as Pharaoh Narmer

Although 1st First Dynasty Pharaoh Djet was the first portrayed as wearing the Double Crown of Lower and Upper Egypt 



No actual Crowns in any form have survived to be excavated so all forms are known and studied from paintings, writings and sculptures



The Double Crown is usually worn in depictions by the Gods Horus, Atum or Ra. All of which show the special relationship between the deity and the Pharaoh



Picture: Crown of a Princess of Egypt


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