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Human Mummification Process

Mummification - Beliefs

The Clinical Process for the Elite Human

The Embalming – Stage 1

  • The Khat, or physical body, is taken to the Ibu, or place of purification
  • The Embalmers take over possession of the Khat
  • They work immediately to cease the decomposition of the Khat by extracting the internal Organs and thoroughly washing out the cavity spaces left by the extraction with Palm Wine mixed with Spices; including myrrh and cassia; and then again with Nile Water

The Embalming – Stage 2

The order in which the Organs were removed were important and are noted as follows: –

  • The Brain from the Cranium Space via the Nose; enacted with an organic tool shaped as a Rod – one of the Rods has recently been found during scan undertaken on a Mummy – used to break down the composition of the brain which allowed it to drain out through the nasal cavity; the remaining Brain Cavity was rinsed and cleaned of tissue which effectively killed any bacteria and then filled with Resin to ensure the space would not collapse; this was kept in place by linen plugs in the nostrils
  • Removed from an incision on the Khat’s left hand side were: the Liver; the Lungs; the Intestines and the Stomach

 

 

The Embalming – Stage 3

  • Embalmers handled the Organs which were also dried out using Natron and then ritually placed into Canopic Jars which were guarded by the 4 sons of Horus and 4 Goddesses:
  • the Liver: guarded by God Imsety and Goddess Isis; Human headed Canopic Jar
  • the Lungs: guarded by God Hapi and Goddess Nephthys: Baboon headed Canopic Jar
  • the Intestines: guarded by God Qubehsenuf and Goddess Selket; Falcon headed Canopic Jar
  • the Stomach: guarded by God Duamutef and Goddess Neith: Jackal headed Canopic Jar
  • The one remaining Organ in the Khat was the Heart as Ancient Egyptian Religion declared the Heart as the Home of Thoughts, Feelings and the capacity to hold the Soul; as such, this needed to be retained in place for the Khat’s use the reach the Afterlife through the Hall of Judgement
  • The Khat’s moisture was drawn to evaporate with the use of Natron Salts; placed into the Khat’s empty cavity inside Linen Bags as well as covering the exterior skin; these Salts would have been refreshed during the process

The Embalming – Stage 4

  • Recent excavations have found that the Natron bags used in the embalming were also entombed with the Khat which Egyptologists have suggested may be needed in order for the deceased to fully resurrect when needed as they contained the Khat’s moisture

The Drying Process

  • The process took 70 Days
  • Any longer and the Khat is too stiff to move during the Wrapping Process
  • Any shorter and the Khat is not dried out enough

The Wrapping

Stage 1

  • A Hemnetjer, or Priest, recites the Spells that the deceased will need to make the journey and resurrect in the Afterlife over the Khat, whilst the Khat is being wrapped
  • The Khat’s Head and Body are wrapped, then the Fingers and Toes and individually wrapped all with strips of white Linen
  • The Arms and Legs are then wrapped individually with Amulets placed between the wrappings to ensure the Khat is protected throughout its journey to the Afterlife

Stage 2

  • Once this portion is completed, then the Khat’s Arms are bound to the torso and the Legs are bound together
  • Between wrappings Spells from the Book of the Dead on a Papyrus is added into the wrappings near the Hand to ensure the deceased has these, literally to hand, when needed
  • Final Linen strips are added to the Khat with the Head Embalmer dressed with a representative mask of God Anubis, the God of Embalming, to bound all together; each layer at this juncture is covered with Resin in its liquid form to harden and adhere the linen together

Stage 3

  • If done in haste and dried improperly research had proven to Egyptologists that this can catch alight
  • This is what is supposed to have occurred to Pharaoh Tutankhamun’s wrappings; recent analysis has shown the Resin to be a comparable waterproofing and antimicrobial agents to those used today
  • A large Cloth is the final wrapping for the Khat and traditionally, but not necessarily, a representation of God Osiris is painted on
  • Coffins are then placed one inside another with the Khat at the centre
  • Of course, the number of Coffins depending on the status of the Khat during their life span

The Cheaper Clinical Process for Embalming a Human

  • A plug was inserted into the rectum to stop leakages and Cedar Tree Oil was injected via syringe into the Khat’s abdomen, having the effect of liquefying and disinfecting the torso and thus eliminating the need for further processes and Canopic Jars
  • Natron Salts were used for 70 Days to remove the hydration from the Khat
  • After the drying period, the oils and other liquid was removed via the rectum
  • The mummified Khat was returned by the Embalmers to the Family for burial

The Cheapest Clinical Process for Embalming a Human

  • The Intestines were cleared from the Khat using a liquid which is yet to be identified, but it is known that this was inserted into the Khat in the form of an enema

 

  • Natron Salts were used for 70 Days to remove the hydration from the Khat

 

  • The mummified Khat was returned by the Embalmers to the Family for burial