Cleopatra's DemiseAlexandria - Capital Cities
What: The Battle of Alexandria
When: 1st July to 30th July 30BC
Who: Mark Antony with Pharaoh Cleopatra on behalf of Egypt with 28,000 Legionaries and 6,000 Egyptian Troops – versus – Octavian on behalf of the Roman Empire with 44,000 Legionaries
Why: To have full control of Egypt and cement the Roman Empire
On the lead up to the Battle of Alexandria, Mark Antony had been forced to abandon the major part of his army in Greece after the Battle of Actium. The Battle of Actium was a loss for Mark Antony, and he had fled back to Egypt with his consort Pharaoh Cleopatra. The remainder of Mark Antony’s legionnaires together with Cleopatra’s Egyptian troops were a solid opponent whilst using the Walls of Alexandria against Octavian’s siege against the city during July 30BC.
At the beginning of July, the Battle of Alexandria commenced when Octavian attacked by land from the Eastern and the Western sides. This breached the cities defences and Alexandria fell to the Romans.
Antony committed suicide around 4th August, allegedly dying in Cleopatra’s arms
Cleopatra committed suicide on 12th August
She was the last Pharaoh of Egypt
Octavian executed their direct heirs to avoid any future assaults
Egypt was annexed to Rome and used as its food machine
All Romans in any form of power were restricted from visiting Egypt unless they had the express instructions to do so from the Roman Emperor