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Memphis

Capital Cities

What: Capital City of Egypt during the Old Kingdom Period. When it was not the Capital, it remained an important and strategic trading city and home to the living who looked after the dead at its Necropolis in Saqqara

Known as: The White Walls or Inebuhedj; also known as Ankhtawy, “Life of the Two Lands”. By the New Kingdom it was known as Mennefer or “Enduring and Beautiful” which brought the Greeks to name it Memphis

Where: 24km South of Cairo and on the ancient border which divided Lower and Upper Egypt, alongside a canal which connected to the Nile for trade and travel purposes

22nd Nome of Upper Egypt and 1st Nome of Lower Egypt. The Main Port was called Peru-nefer and had a high density of workshops, factories, and warehouses

When: Founded in approx. 3,100BC and remained the Capital for 8 continuous Dynasties of Ancient Egypt during the Old Kingdom. The city declined with the rise of Thebes in at the end of the 18th Dynasty and was eventually abandoned in 7th Century AD

Who: Founded by Pharaoh Menes who unified Lower and Upper Egypt into one united country and populated by many Pharaohs throughout ancient times

Religion: Cult Centre for God Ptah, with his consort Goddess Sekhmet and their son, God Nefertem

Monuments:
                        Great Temple of Ptah and its welcoming Statue of Ramses II, measured over
                        12 meters in height

                        Alabaster Sphinx which is approx. 4 meters high and 7 meters long

                        Temple of Hathor

                        Palace of Merenptah

                        At the Necropolis in Saqqara:

                                    Pyramid Complex of Teti

                                    Pyramid Complex of Pepi I & Pepi II

                                    Pyramid Complex of Netjerikhet

                                    Pyramid Complex of Sekhemkhet

                                    Pyramid Complex of Userkaf

                                    Tomb of Hotepsekhemwi

                                    Pyramid Complex of Merenre I

                                    Serapeum, where the Apis Bulls, considered to be living versions of the            
                                    God Ptah, were buried

Home of the Soul of Ptah

The White Walls

Illustration according to Assassin’s Creed

The White Walls were located at a strategic juncture between the Nile River, the Delta area of Egypt, the Sahara Desert routes, the Red Sea Desert routes and the Mediterranean Sea.

The Palaces

Ancient Egyptian Palaces could be erected in a relatively short amount of time and were erected out of basic mud brick, and then highly decorated, that the “Palaces” could have often been built and then abandoned quite quickly by today’s comparisons

Hut-ka-Ptah, The Great Temple of Ptah

Home of the Soul of the God Ptah. The largest and principal Temple in Memphis throughout its time as a capital and afterwards. Considered as 1 of the 3 most significantly religious places in Ancient Egypt along with the Temple of Amun in Thebes and the Temple of Ra in Heliopolis

The Artisans

No one needs to look too far or too hard to find the work that the Artisans of Memphis put into their daily toil. The Tombs, the interior of the Pyramids, the causeways of the Pyramids and their Temples hold significant guides to the peak of the artisan culture from Memphis.

The Dream of Prince Thutmose

Prince Thutmose, son of the Pharaoh, fell asleep in front of the paws of the great Sphinx. He dreamt that the Sphinx spoke to him and said that if Prince Thutmose cleared all the gathered sand away from around the Sphinx then in return Prince Thutmose would ascend the Throne.

The Temples

Including, the Temple of Ptah of Pharaoh Rameses II, Beloved of Amun, God and Ruler of Heliopolis, the Temple of Ptah and Sekhmet of Pharaoh Rameses II, the Temple of Ptah of Pharaoh Merenptah, the Temple of Hathor, the Temple of Goddess Sekhmet, the Temple of Apis, the Manifestation of the God Ptah, the Temple of Amun, the Temple of Aten, the Temple to God Anubis, the Temple to God Mithras, the Temple to Goddess Astarte & the Temple of the Goddess Neith

Memphite Necropolis

The place where the Pharaohs, their Royal Families and the Nobles, who used Memphis as their Capital City tended to be buried, containing 38 Pyramids and 9,000 Rock Cut Tombs; from the North at Giza to the South at Dahshur, and in the middle of the two is Saqqara, almost opposite Memphis itself. Including the Pyramids of Giza, the Step Pyramid, the Bent Pyramid and the Step Pyramid

 

The Memphite Triad

The God Ptah, Goddess Sekhmet and God Nefertem: The Memphite Triad. Chief home and place of worship was in Memphis during the 1st to 8th Dynasties; 18th and 19th Dynasty until Seti I’s Rule & 715-664BC