Later CampaignsPharaoh Alexander the Great - The Pharaohs - The People
The Infamous Pharaoh who built himself an Empire and was welcomed into rule Egypt with open arms after the subjugation faced by the Egyptians from the Persians
Following his desire to unite his world, he took the title of King of Persia in 330 BC and became the first Lord of Asia in 331 BC.
To do this, after he had conquered and was enthroned in Egypt and the land was settled in the hands of trusted Macedonians who began the construction the new capital city Alexandria, and after Pharaoh Alexander’s political marriage to Roxana, a Princess from Bactria after the defeat of former Persian Ruler Darius III, he moved on to the subcontinent of what is known today as India in 326 BC.
He offered peace first and invited the Chieftains to submit to him, only one conceded, Omphis of Taxila. Omphis brought with him worthy gifts and offered Alexander his army, to cement their relationship, Alexander returned all the gifts, bade him to keep his title as Ruler under Alexander’s authority, and then also gifted him Persians Clothing, Gold and Silver regalia, 30 horses and 1,000 local pieces of gold. The two armies marched on to Omphis’ capital city of Taxila and together they feasted and celebrated their union. Later they would fight together winning the Battle of Hydaspes River.
In the years 327 and 326 BC King Alexander continued to fight in all his Armies Battles. These included Battles against the Guraeans (from the Guraeus Valley), Aspasioi (from the Kunar Valleys), King Porus (from the Hydaspes), and the Assakenoi (from the Swat and Buner Valleys).
How was King Alexander able to best so many different opponents in so many different situations? The key was that King Alexander would watch how his enemies fought and then adapt his forces to his enemies’ style.
It was near here that King Alexander’s army mutinied against him, perhaps fearing new immense battles against seemingly insurmountable foes, or maybe the call from their homeland in Greece was reaching them. They ceased marching at the Hyphasis River, modern day Beas River, and has ever since marked the eastern border of King Alexander’s territory.
On their march towards their homelands, King Alexander still managed to conquer the Malhi and some other Indian Tribes. The troops then split with part of his Army marching to Carmania in modern Iran under General Craterus, part of his Navy exploring the Persian Gulf under Admiral Nearchus, and the remainder of his Troops stayed with King Alexander and marched back to Persia.
Along their way they ensured that any of his placed Provincial Rulers who had mutinied in Alexander’s absence were executed. Their route took them via the Gedrosian Desert from which they emerged at Susa in 324 BC. Regrettably they had not reckoned successfully against the desert and many troops had died.
On reaching Susa, King Alexander paid his soldier’s debts and proclaimed that all elder and injured veterans would be returned to Macedonia. But the message was not well repeated, and the troops believed that King Alexander was dismissing them due to his disappointment in them. Their mutiny commenced in Opis and lasted for 3 days. It was finally broken with the soldiers begging their king’s forgiveness and Alexander acquiesced and hosted an enormous banquet for them. The total guests numbered in the thousands.
To try and create a lasting daily peace between the different peoples of his empire, King Alexander held a mass marriage ceremony for Macedonian Army Officers to Noble Persian Women. His peoples seemingly settled, King Alexander went to Ecbatana (one of the first cities of the Persians and located today in Iran), the location of his treasure hoard collected from the Persians.
In Ecbatana King Alexander’s closest friend Hephaestion died leaving the King distraught. Hephaestion was given a sumptuous Funeral Pyre in Babylon and all King Alexander’s people were told to mourn his passing.
In mourning in Babylon, King Alexander distracted himself from grief by planning to invade Arabia. There plans were never achieved as King Alexander, now known as Alexander the Great, died a short time later.