Abu Sir & Abu GorabThe Places
Abusir & Abu Gorab
Abu Gorab was north of Abusir which itself was to the north of Saqqara but South of Giza and almost opposite Memphis. As with nearly all Burial Sites, they are located on the Western side of the River Nile.
Abu Gorab was used from the 1st to the 5th Dynasty by those of the Middle to High Ranks of Society, up to the Royal Family. It is home to 2 Solar Temples: The largest and well-preserved Solar Temple of Pharaoh Nyuserre and the Solar Temple of Pharaoh Userkaf, both of the 5th Dynasty; as well as an early cemetery.
A cemetery for the Middle Ranks of Society was formed here during the Early Dynastic Period from 3100 to 2900 BC. After excavations, Egyptologists have confirmed that nearly everyone buried here was from the middling ranks of society. This can be confirmed by the level of Funerary Equipment buried with them and the way and expense with which they were mummified. After the 5th Dynasty, the cemetery became obsolete.
Abusir was known as “The House of Osiris”, and is home to 14 Pyramids: unfortunately, these were made with lesser stone than those of their neighbours and so most have not survived. Although cemeteries and tombs have remained surprisingly intact with many parts of the Mortuary Temples and Sun Temples still remaining.
As an ancient site, Abusir was from the beginning of the 5th Dynasty but also continued on until the 26th and 27th Dynasties and was mainly used by the Royalty of the 5th Dynasty but also for Nobility, Priests and Officials.
Click on the Image to visit the Site
The Smaller Pyramids and Mastabas
- Pyramid of Queen Khentkaus II, wife of Pharaoh Neferirkare; who was also the mother of Pharaoh Neferefre and Pharaoh Nyuserre
- Pyramid known as Lepsius 24: appears to have been a Queen’s Pyramid and is home to the name reliefs of Vizier Ptahshepses
- Pyramid known as Lepsius 25: thought to have been a Queen’s Pyramid
- Mastaba of Vizier Ptahshepses, Vizier to Pharaoh Nyuserre
- Mastaba of Prince Nakhtkare, son of either Pharaoh Raneferef or Pharaoh Nyuserre
Abu Sir Papyri
Abu Sir and Abu Gorab held the largest group of Old Kingdom Papyri, particularly during the 5th Dynasty, that has been found in Egypt to date.
One of the Administrative Temple Papyri records the Abu Sir Funerary Cult of Pharaoh Neferirkare, inlcuding Timetables, Grain Provisions, Daily Offerings List, National Cattle Counts, and Letters.