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Pre Dynastic & 1st Dynasty Pharaohs

Lesser-known Pharaohs - The Pharaohs - The People

Pharaoh Scorpion I
History is not kind to us in finding the true Pharaoh named Scorpion I, but he may be the one who we can call the first Pharaoh of Egypt as he probably unified Upper Egypt following his defeat of Naqada’s Kings. He may have introduced the hieroglyphic script to be the nation’s only writing system.

Pharaoh Iry Hor
His Tomb at Abydos gives him his identity as a Pharaoh whose name is along the lines of, “Companion to Horus”, who reigned during the early 32nd Century BC. His Tomb is the oldest at Abydos which is popularly known as the burial place of the 1st Dynasty of Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs.

Pharaoh Ka
Probable successor to Pharaoh Iry Hor, he was also buried at Abydos in a large double chambered Tomb.

Pharaoh Scorpion II
This Pharaoh is highly disputed as to his name, life, reign and dominions. If he was not the same person as Pharaoh Narmer, then at the time of his reign, Egypt was divided into minor “Kingdoms” that were involved in skirmishes. The Location of his Tomb is not currently known.

Pharaoh Narmer
Originally from Thinis, Pharaoh Narmer is considered to be the founder of the 1st Dynasty Pharaohs of Egypt and credited with the unification of all Egypt as per the details on the Narmer Palette, which was discovered in Hierakonpolis. He married the princess of Naqada, Princess Neithhotep and unified the country further through this political alliance. Under his settlement of the country, urbanisation increased on a huge scale as did the creative and scientific arts. He was buried in Abydos.

Pharaoh Aha
His name means Horus the Fighter and he has also been identified as a potential candidate for the Pharaoh named Menes. If so, then it could be him who unified Egypt. other suggestions are that Pharaoh Aha was the son of Pharaoh Narmer and succeeded him on the Throne of a unified Egypt. As with nearly every other First Dynasty Ruler, Pharaoh Aha was buried at Abydos.

Pharaoh Djer
3rd Pharaoh of the First Dynasty who reigned for approx. 40 years. He was the son of Pharaoh Aha and Queen Khenthap, grandson of Pharaoh Narmer. His son succeeded him and interred him in Abydos.

Pharaoh Djet
4th Ruler of the First Dynasty was married to his sister, Princess Merneith. It is unknown how long he ruled for, but it is thought to have been no shorter than 6 years and no longer than 10 years. His Abydos Tomb is controversial because he has 174 burials adjoined to his Tomb and these are thought to have contained humans who were to be for his use in the Afterlife.

Pharaoh Den
Son of his predecessor Pharaoh Djet and the Pharaoh’s sister-wife, Queen Merneith, it appears that he inherited the throne at a tender age and so his mother took over as Regent until he reached an age which the Egyptians considered old enough to inherit. Pharaoh Den gave his Mother and Regent a hugely fitting burial, honouring her as though she was a full Pharaoh. He became the first ruler to use the Title, “Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt”. Ruling for 42 years, he was the first to have been depicted as wearing the Egyptian’s infamous Double Crown.

During his reign the following was instituted and became the standards which were used throughout the Pharaonic periods:

  • Numbers; for collecting taxes and annotating reigns
  • Creation of Rock Reliefs
  • First time a Heb Sed Festival is recorded as having been performed

Again, he is interred with other 1st Dynasty Pharaohs in Abydos.

Pharaoh Anedjib
Reigning for roughly 10 years, he appears to have been the son of Pharaoh Den and was buried in Abydos.

Pharaoh Semerkhet
His father was either Pharaoh Den or Pharaoh Anedjib, but his roughly 8-year reign appeared to suffer some type of tragedy, as noted by the Historian Manetho.

Pharaoh Ka’a
Probable son to Pharaoh Semerkhet or Pharaoh Anedjib, he reigned for around 33 years. The end of his reign caused an issue of inheritance as two different Royal Houses began a battle for the empty Throne. Again, Pharaoh Ka’a was buried in Abydos.


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