Select Page

Egypt versus Rest of the World

A Dynasty - What is Ancient Egypt?


Rest of the World

Egypt’s Early Dynastic Period

1st & 2nd Dynasties: Egypt was unified by Narmer
Capital City was established at Memphis
The 365 day Calendar was now in full use
The Royal Tombs are created at Abydos and Saqqara
Irrigation projects employed

3150–2686 BC

Sumerian cities thrive
Gilgamesh at Uruk
Troy is established
Syria and Palestine build towns
Malta megaliths erected
Minoans build on Crete

The Old Kingdom Period

3rd to 6th Pharaonic Dynasties
Bronze Age, The Pyramid Age
Egypt was productive enough to move
the workforce from solely trade and
agriculture on to building projects

2686–2181 BC

Minoans open trade routes
Megaliths are built in Europe
Royal graves are established in Ur
 Ziggurat built at Sumer

First Intermediate Period

7th to 10th Pharaonic Dynasties
Famine scarred the country
The Pharaohs lost control of the
country and each of the regional
Nomarchs became de facto
war chieftains

2181–2125 BC

Middle Kingdom Period

11th and 12th Pharaonic Dynasties
Middle Bronze Age
Time of literature and the strengthening
of the middle classes
Pharaohs concentrated on reinforcing
their borders, including the building of forts
and equipping the army to deal
with these threats

2055–1650 BC

Babylon reaches heights to become a regional power
Greece was populised
Stonehenge was built
Sumer was brought back to life
Hammurabi rules in Babylon
The Persian empire commences
Knossus on Crete becomes a vast city

Second Intermediate Period

13th to 17th Pharaonic Dynasties
This period saw an easing of the
previously strict borders in the South
with the Nubians and in the North
with the Hyksos
This led to a further mix of cultures which
became assimilated into the Egyptian
way of life

1650-1550 BC

Hittites destroy Babylon

New Kingdom Period

18th to 20th Pharaonic Dynasties
Bronze Age
The height of Ancient Egyptian power
as the 
rulers took a proactive route to
guarding Egypt’s borders, 
carving out
an empire using their allies as buffers.
Many of today’s best-known Pharaohs
ruled in this period

1550-1069 BC

Minoan civilization collapses
Mitanni people come to the fore
Myceneans establish citadels
Assyrians and Babylonians begin recoveries after a time of decline
The Sea Peoples destroy the power
of the Hittites
The Mediterranean Iron
Age commences

Third Intermediate Period

21st to 25th Pharaonic Dynasties
Egypt was invaded by a number
of foreign dominions
These were compacted by strikes,
economic issues and
internal revolts countrywide
The country split and was ruled
by independent Pharaohs
with North versus South

1069-664 BC

Phoenicians establish Carthage
Etruscans settle in “Italy”
Assyria collapses
Babylon regains its power
The first Olympic Games are held
in Greece
Homer writes the Iliad

Late Period

26th to 31st Pharaonic Dynasties
Assyrians invaded, driving out the
Nubians and then left to deal with
home country issues
A King od Libyan heritage ruled
for a short period of time before the
Persians invaded and occupied
Egypt twice

664-332 BC

Cyrus the Great of Persia conquers Babylon
Persepolis is founded
First Greeco Persian War is 
Athens emerges as the chief political power
Greek philosophy and art flourish
Rome begins to rise in Italy
The Gauls sack Rome
Alexander the Great becomes king of
Macedonia and conquers the Persian Empire

Greek Egypt

The Ptolemaic Dynasties
Alexander the Great occupies Egypt and 
declares himself Pharaoh 
His General, Ptolemy, followed him establishing Alexandria and the Ptolemaic Dynasties
Eratosthenes, Archimedes, and Euclid all visit
There are Temples built at Philae, Edfu & Dendera
The Rosetta Stone is erected
Cleopatra VII rules and becomes the
last Pharaonic ruler
Julius Caesar comes to Alexandria
Antony and Cleopatra are defeated at
Battle of Actium
Egypt falls to the legions of Octavian

The end of the Ptolemaic dynasty and beginning of the Roman occupation of Egypt

332-30 BC

Rome and Carthage fight the Punic Wars, leaving Rome master of the Mediterranean
Rome conquers Greece
Pompey the Great campaigns in the East
Rome conquers Gaul
Julius Caesar defeats his rivals in the Roman Civil War
Augustan Age begins with the birth of the Roman Empire

To learn more about any of the Egyptian Time Periods, click on the relevant map

Prehistoric Egypt
pre–3150 BC

The Early Dynastic Period
3150–2686 BC

The Old Kingdom Period
2686–2181 BC

First Intermediate Period
2181–2125 BC

Middle Kingdom Period
2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period
1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom Period
1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period
1069–664 BC

Late Period 664–332 BC

Greek Egypt 332-30 BC


Enjoying this Website? Please spread the word :)