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The 5 Extra Days: The Epagomenal

Ancient Egyptian Year

What               “5 Days upon the Year”: Period of 5 days to make the Egyptian Year up from 360 Days to 365 Days per Year 

Where             Throughout Egypt

When             During the Period of the Pyramid Texts, the days were known as the “Birthdays of the Gods”

                        By the Middle Kingdom Period, the days were given specific names and were put in a specific order

Why                Initially introduced to make sure that the rising of the star Sirius would happen in the 12th month

Osiris

Horus

Set

Isis

Nephthys

Day 1: Birth of Osiris: “Pure Bull in His Field”. The eldest of 5 siblings born to Geb and Nut. He was the Deity of Fertility, Agriculture, Vegetation, the Dead, the Afterlife, the Resurrection, Life and Alcohol

Day 2: Birth of Horus: Depicted as a Falcon headed Deity; or a Falcon headed Lion. It may have been the inspiration of the Sphinx. He was a Sky Deity

Day 3: Birth of Set: Overlord of the Red Desert in Southern Egypt, Fire, Deserts, Chaos, Disorder, Storms, Trickery, Envy and Violence

Day 4: Birth of Isis: Wife of Osiris and Mother of Horus. The Goddess of Health and Wellbeing, Feminine charms, Art, Music, Wisdom and Protection for Mothers and Children

Day 5: Birth of Nephthys: The Wife of Set. Goddess of rivers, the night, service, protection, the home, childbirth, mothers, mourning, the dead, coffins and buria. She is often shown in tandem with Goddess Isis