Dynasty 30Late Period - Egypt Through Time - What is Ancient Egypt?
Egypt’s Late Period: 664 to 332 BC
26th to 31st Pharaonic Dynasties
The Assyrians invaded, driving out the Nubians and then left to deal with issues in their home country
A Pharaoh of Libyan heritage ruled for a short period of time before the Persians invaded and occupied Egypt twice
The last Dynasty of the Late Period and was conceived by Pharaoh Nectanebo I after he, backed by the Army, ousted Pharaoh Nepherites II, and it is considered the final Egyptian native Dynasty of Egypt. Similar to his predecessors, Pharaoh sided with Sparta and Athens against their foe, the Persians and together they repelled many invasions.
To cement his Dynasty, Pharaoh Nectanebo I co-reigned with his son, Crown Prince Teos from 365 BC. Pharaoh Teos looked to expand Egypt and invaded Persian areas that we know today as Palestine/Israel and Syria trying to reconquer land which Egypt held during the New Kingdom. To do this, he imposed heavy taxes and seized Temple property which the populace as well as the priesthood grew to hate Pharaoh for. Whilst away, Prince Tjahapimu, Pharaoh’s brother seized the Throne and declared his son as the new Pharaoh Nectanebo II. Despite Nectanebo II being Teos’ nephew, he was not willing to accept this usurpation. He tried to get the Army involved in the regal struggle, but they, as well as the Court, sided with Pharaoh Nectanebo II and so Teos fled to the Persian Court.
Pharaoh Nectanebo II ruled Egypt peacefully for 10 years before the Persians looked to re-take Egypt as a vassal state. The Persian failed invasion of 351 to 350 BC set off revolts in Cilicia (modern south Turkey), Phoenicia (roughly modern Lebanon) and Cyprus. Persia put down all these revolts and turned back towards Egypt in 343 BC. This invasion was successful for Persia which conquered Egypt in the Nile Delta. Pharaoh Nectanebo II had to withdraw southwards to Memphis. On consolidating his position, he realised that he was lost to Egypt as their Pharaoh and fled to the Court of Napata in Nubia.
This 30th Dynasty of Egypt was ended in 343 BC by Persian Ruler King Artaxerxes III. Technically from now on all Rulers of Egypt were invaders.
The Capital City of the 30th Dynasty of Egypt
was the “City of the Sacred Calf”
Click on any of the Images to visit the City
Pharaoh Nectanebo I
He initiated Dynasty 30 and moved the Capital City to Sebennytos and then began a massive building campaign. He is remembered for being very generous to the Deities and the Temples which he often supported financially. This worked in his favour when the Persians looked to retake Egypt over as a vassal state in 374 BC as he could ask for some funds from the Temples to defend Egypt. In Regnal Year 16, Crown Prince Teos was made co-Ruler.
Son of Pharaoh Nectanebo I he reigned from 361 to 360 BC. Emboldened by his father’s wise military use, Pharaoh Teos invaded Persian lands, but he could only fund this by imposing heavy taxes and seizing Temple property. Whilst away, Egypt turned against Pharaoh and his nephew seized the Throne. He was announced the new Pharaoh Nectanebo II. Exiled, Teos fled to the Persian Court at Susa, but he was pursued and returned to Egypt in chains.
Pharaoh Nectanebo II
When he took over the Throne from Pharaoh Teos, Egypt once again prospered, and he decided to outdo even his namesake in his building achievements which totalled over 100 during his reign from 360 to 342 BC. At the same time, he rebuilt the Army, so when the Persians tried to invade in 351 BC Pharaoh defeated the Persians. He also supported his allies against the Persians. Despite all his efforts Pharaoh and Egypt were defeated in the summer of 342 BC. Pharaoh fled to Upper Egypt and then to Nubia where he was given protection by the Court of Napata in Nubia. Persian Ruler, King Artaxerxes marched into Memphis and Egypt was never again ruled by a native Egyptian Ruler. Egypt’s 30th Dynasty was ended.